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Gardenia c. Hung Gardenia c. Hung
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A Constitutional Anniversary from a Time Traveller--Then and Now


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First President of the United States George Washington, Constitution of the United States of America


The Constitution of the United States was signed in agreement, two hundred and twenty-five years ago, on September 17, 1787, at the closing of the Constitutional Convention held in Independence Hall, Philadelphia , in Pennsylvania .  There were thirty-nine (39) representatives of the states, who signed willingly:



     “In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed Our Names”. [1]



George Washington, President and deputy from Virginia


John Langdon and Nicholas Gilman from New Hampshire


Nathaniel Gorham and Rufus King from Massachusetts


Wm. Samuel Johnson and Roger Sherman from Connecticut


Alexander Hamilton from New York


William Livingston and David Brearley from New Jersey


Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris,George Clymer from Pennsylvania


T’hos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson and Gouv Morris from Pennsylvania


Geo: Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Basset from Delaware


Jaco: Bromm from Delaware


James McHenry, Dan of St. Thos. Jenifer, Danl Carroll from Maryland


John Blair and James Madison Jr. from Virginia


Wm. Blout, Richd. Dobbs Spaight and Hu Williamson from North Carolina


J. Rutledge, Charles C. Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler from South Carolina


William Few and Abr Baldwin from Georgia



     Attest William Jackson, Secretary



     According to a feature article, “Inside the Masons”:  George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and thirteen (13)  of the 39 signers of the U.S. Constitution, were members of the Fraternal Order of the Freemasonry and founders of the new nation, called the United States of America[2].


  


     Constitutional and inalienable rights inherent in the laws of equal justice, fairness, and equity, drawn by the 39 state representatives, are based upon the Masonic values of the fraternal order for honorable civic-mindedness with “equal justice under the law”, a high regard for learning and progress, and a broad tolerant religiosity.  In retrospect, “freemasons helped to give the new nation a symbolic core and a sense of the American civic culture”, as stated by Steven Bullock, historian and leading scholar of the Masonic brethren in America[3].



     Symbols of the Freemasonry have transcended the stonemason guilds for the display of the compass, square, and other signs of the Freemasons—including the Great Seal of the United States which contained Masonic symbols.



     The founding fathers, Washington and Franklin, were documented and active members of the Masonic lodges, while Jefferson and Adams were not.



     The first President of the United States , George Washington was initiated into Masonry rites on November 4, 1752, at the age of twenty, in the Lodge of Fredericksburg, in Virginia[4].



     The American Revolution was won by patriotic men, united by Masonic ties and religious events.



     Benjamin Franklin was a Freemason in the Lodge of Saint John in Philadelphia in 1731.  Franklin used his resources and printing presses to promote Masonry, writing pro-Masonry articles, drafting the lodge’s by-laws, and printing the first Masonic book in America .



     The U.S. Constitution was drawn by several influential Freemasons—including Washington, Franklin, and Randolph—and by non-Masons John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.  The signers of the Constitution were already Masonic brethren and others would become Freemasons afterwards.  Although, Madison, Adams, and Jefferson were not Masons, nearly all the signers participated in Masonic lodge activities.  David Brearley was active in the Masonic Order in New Jersey .  Mr. Brearley supported the Constitution at the New Jersey ratifying convention[5].



     Later on, on April 30, 1789, George Washington was sworn as the first president of the United States of America by Robert Livingston, the grand master of New York ’s Grand Lodge who administered the first presidential oath of office.  General Jacob Morton, a Freemason, was the marshal of the day.  General Morgan Lewis, also a Freemason was Washington ’s escort.  George Washington was the master Freemason of the Alexandria Lodge in Virginia[6].



     More than two hundred years ago, the new nation’s capital of the United States of America was blueprinted in a Masonic plan, designed by the French Mason Pierre-Charles L’Enfant—that  is to say, Washington , D.C.



     For historical reference, Freemasons practice faith in God, addressed as the “Great Architect of the Universe”.  In the Middle Ages, freemasons formed guilds of stonemasons working with free-stone.  There were 25 lodges in Scotland during the 17th century, from which 16 became centres of Masonic skills—stonemasonry.  The order of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons began in London as the first Grand Lodge, in 1717.  During the 18th century, Freemasonry was promoted in Great Britain and traveled to the new nation of the United States in the Americas , Europe , and around the world.[7]    



    


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[1] The United States Constitution and Fascinating Facts About It, page 30, supplemental text by Terry L. Jordan.  Copyright©2005 by Oak Hill Publishing Company.


[2] U.S. News & World Report, page 30, September 5, 2005.  Copyright© 2005 by U.S. News & World Report, Inc.


[3] Ibid., pages 30-31.


[4] “The Masonic Lodge and the American Revolution”, Steven Sora, page 118.


[5] McCormick Tribune Freedom Museum , Blueprint for Freedom, What Will You Build?, page 20. The United States Constitution and Fascinating Facts About It. Copyright© 2006 by Oak Hill Publishing Company.


[6] “The Masonic Lodge and the American Revolution”, Steven Sora, page 171.


[7] QPB Dictionary of Ideas.  Copyright©1994 by Helicon Publishing Ltd. Originally published in 1995 , in the United Kingdom under the title, The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ideas.



Consulting Media Arts Communications©2012 Gardenia Hung.  


All Rights Reserved.


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